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How DNA was discovered

1865 : Gregor Mendel discovered, by crossbreeding peas, that specific laws govern hereditary traits (later referred to as Mendel's Laws).

1866 : Ernst Haeckel proposed the nucleus contains the factors responsible for transmitting hereditary characteristics.

1869 : Friedrich Miescher isolated DNA for the first time.

1871 : The first descriptions of DNA were published by Friedrich Miescher, Felix Hoppe-Seyler and P Plósz.

1882 : Walther Flemming described chromosomes and examined their behaviour during cellular division.

1910 : Thomas Hunt Morgan used fruit flies (drosophilidae) to study heredity and found the first mutant: a subject with white eyes.

1928 : Frederick Griffith discovered a “transforming principle” could be released by one strain of bacteria and integrated in others, transferring new genetic properties via heredity.

1941 : George Beadle and Edward Tatum demonstrated that each gene is responsible for producing one protein.

1949–1950 : Erwin Chargaff published his work on the nitrogenous base content of DNA and demonstrated the A+T/C+G ratio varies according to species, but is constant between members of the same species and the C/G and A/T ratios are always equal to 1.

1953 : Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins used X-rays to demonstrate that DNA has a repeated double helix structure.

Watson et Crick and the double helix model

1953 : James Watson and Francis Crick, pictured to the left, discovered the molecular structure of DNA: a double helix with base pairs of A + T and C + G.

1958 : Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl described how DNA replicates (semiconservative replication).

1972 : Paul Berg used restriction enzymes to create the first segment of recombinant DNA.

1977 : Frederick Sanger, Allan Maxam and Walter Gilbert developed DNA sequencing methods.

1983 : Kary Mullis invented the PCR process as an in vitro method for amplifying DNA.

1990 : Start of human genome sequencing.

Schéma du génome d'Haemophylus influenzae

1995 : The first complete genomic sequence of a free-living organism - Haemophilus influenzae bacteria - was published.

1999 : The first complete sequence of a human chromosome (22) was published.

2004 : Complete sequencing of the human genome was finished by an international public consortium.

2007 : HELYS proposes personalised works of art based on the DNA of its customers!

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Our artworks are for you! For yourself or for someone special, unique and custom artworks. Surprising, personalized, modern and original, our artworks are created using the DNA or fingerprints of the recipient. This contemporary designer portrait is also an unusual personalized gift. Ideal ! For Christmas, a birthday, it is a surprise guarantee! Offers for couples and families will be perfect for weddings, wedding anniversaries, births, ...

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